Sustainable land use plays an important role in ensuring the fulfillment of human needs by giving attention to the carrying capacity of the environment. This involves the balanced approach to the aspects of land, water, biodiversity and environmental resource management. One good example, Indonesia with its tropical forest accounts for 50 percent of its land, is facing tremendous challenges in implementing sustainable land management. Conversion of forest will have impact to biodiversity, water management, and carbon storage, the latter is closely related to climate change.
With a coastline stretching 95,000 kilometers and oceans covering 70 percent of the total territory of Indonesia, marine and coastal areas possess great potential in supporting life. Oceans and coasts store potential sources of food, biodiversity, environmental services, and energy. On the coastal area where mangrove stands, it provides a breeding ground and protection from abrasion. Whilst, some parts of Indonesian’s oceans have astounding coral reefs which is home of vast marine species. The white sandy beach also a great escape for people to reconnect with nature. A sustainable approach is needed in order for marine and coastal potentials to be managed by keeping the aspects of benefits and balance into consideration.
As more people move away from rural areas into urban centers, there is a delink with the natural environment and the role it plays in sustaining life. A 2019 study shows that less than 2% of Indonesian voters believed that environmental protection was the most important government program, although more than a third had experienced disasters caused by environmental damage, such as floods and draughts. Urban development is closely related to the dimensions of sustainable development, economic justice, social inclusion and environmental carrying capacity. A balance among these dimensions is essential in order to ensure the feasibility of living in urban communities.